FUTURE RUNNER MATERNITY SHIRT LOS ANGELES

Future Runner Maternity Shirt Los Angeles

Future Runner Maternity Shirt Los AngelesFuture runner maternity shirt Los Angeles Fit Pregnancy was founded as a magazine in 1993 by Weider Publications as a spin-off of Shape Magazine. Weider Publications was acquired by American Media, Inc. in November 2002. In 2015, Fit Pregnancy was acquired by Meredith, who closed its print edition

Peg Moline is the magazine’s Editor-in-Chief.

Fit Pregnancy offers advice and health information from OB/GYNs and Pediatricians, such as Dr. Jay Gordon,  Dr. Michel Cohen,  and Fit Pregnancy.com's Ask the Labor Nurse blogger Jeanne Faulkner   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Fit Pregnancy's annual feature on The Best Cities to Have a Baby has been regularly featured on the NBC program Today. The magazine encourages breastfeeding, fitness, and regularly features a column on Environmentalism.   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.  A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins  Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology. Childbirth typically occurs around 40 weeks from the last menstrual period (LMP). This is just over nine months, where each month averages 29½ days.  When measured from conception it is about 38 weeks.  An embryo is the developing offspring during the first eight weeks following conception, after which, the term fetus is used until birth. Symptoms of early pregnancy may include missed periods, tender breasts, nausea and vomiting, hunger, and frequent urination.[1]Pregnancy may be confirmed by a pregnancy test   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Pregnancy is typically divided into three trimesters.  The first trimester is from week one through 12 and includes conception  Conception is when the sperm fertilizes the egg. The fertilized egg then travels down the fallopian tube and attaches to the inside of the uterus, where it begins to form the embryo and placenta  The first trimester carries the highest risk of miscarriage (natural death of embryo or fetus).  The second trimester is from week 13 through 28.  Around the middle of the second trimester, movement of the fetus may be felt  At 28 weeks, more than 90% of babies can survive outside of the uterus is provided with high-quality medical care. The third trimester is from 29 weeks through 40 weeks.   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Common symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy include:

  • ConstipationFuture Runner Maternity Shirt Los Angeles
  • Pelvic girdle pain
  • Back pain
  • Braxton Hicks contractions. Occasional, irregular, and often painless contractions that occur several times per day.
  • Edema (swelling). A common complaint in advancing pregnancy. Caused by compression of the inferior vena cava and pelvic veins by the uterus leads to increased hydrostatic pressure in lower extremities.
  • Increased urinary frequency. A common complaint, caused by increased intravascular volume, elevated glomerular filtration rate, and compression of the bladder by the expanding uterus.
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Varicose veins. Common complaint caused by relaxation of the venous smooth muscle and increased intravascular pressure.
  • Haemorrhoids (piles). Swollen veins at or inside the anal area. Caused by impaired venous return, straining associated with constipation, or increased intra-abdominal pressure in later pregnancy.
  • Regurgitation, heartburn, and nausea.
  • Stretch marks
  • Breast tenderness is common during the first trimester, and is more common in women who are pregnant at a young age

In addition, pregnancy may result in pregnancy complication such as deep vein thrombosis or worsening of an intercurrent disease in pregnancy.   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Through an interplay of hormones that includes follicle stimulating hormone that stimulates folliculogenesis and oogenesis creates a mature egg cell, the female gamete. Fertilization is the event where the egg cell fuses with the male gamete, spermatozoon. After the point of fertilization, the fused product of the female and male gamete is referred to as a zygote or fertilized egg. The fusion of male and female gametes usually occurs following the act of sexual intercourse. Fertilization can also occur by assisted reproductive technology such as artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization.   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Future Runner Maternity Shirt Los AngelesFertilization (conception) is sometimes used as the initiation of pregnancy, with the derived age being termed fertilization age. Fertilization usually occurs about two weeks before the next expected menstrual period.   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

The third point in time is also considered by some people to be the true beginning of a pregnancy: This is a time of implantation, when the future fetus attaches to the lining of the uterus. This is about a week to ten days after fertilization.[  In this model, during the time between conception and implantation, the future fetus exists, but the woman is not considered pregnant.   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

 

The initial stages of human embryogenesis

The sperm and the egg cell, which has been released from one of the female's two ovaries, unite in one of the two fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg, known as a zygote, then moves toward the uterus, a journey that can take up to a week to complete. Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after the male and female cells unite. Cell division continues at a rapid rate and the cells then develop into what is known as a blastocyst. The blastocyst arrives at the uterus and attaches to the uterine wall, a process known as implantation.   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

The development of the mass of cells that will become the infant is called embryogenesis during the first approximately ten weeks of gestation. During this time, cells begin to differentiate into the various body systems. The basic outlines of the organ, body, and nervous systems are established. By the end of the embryonic stage, the beginnings of features such as fingers, eyes, mouth, and ears become visible. Also during this time, there is the development of structures important to the support of the embryo, including the placenta and umbilical cord. The placenta connects the developing embryo to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply. The umbilical cord is the connecting cord from the embryo or fetus to the placenta.

During pregnancy, the woman undergoes many physiological changes, which are entirely normal, including cardiovascular, hematologic, metabolic, renal, and respiratory changes. Increases in blood sugar, breathing, and cardiac output is all required. Levels of progesterone and estrogens rise continually throughout pregnancy, suppressing the hypothalamic axis and therefore also the menstrual cycle.   Future runner maternity shirt Los AngelesFuture Runner Maternity Shirt Los Angeles

The fetus is genetically different from the woman and can be viewed as an unusually successful allograft.  The main reason for this success is increased immune tolerance during pregnancy.  Immune tolerance is the concept that the body is able to not mount an immune system response against certain triggers.   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Pregnancy is typically broken into three periods, or trimesters, each of about three months.  Each trimester is defined as 14 weeks, for a total duration of 42 weeks, although the average duration of pregnancy is 40 weeks  While there are no hard and fast rules, these distinctions are useful in describing the changes that take place over time.   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

First-trimester Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Physical signs   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Further information: Symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Linea nigra in a woman at 22 weeks pregnant   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Flowchart showing the recommended weight limits for lifting at work during pregnancy as a function of lifting frequency, weeks of gestation, and the position of the lifted object relative to the lifter's body

Prenatal care   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

 

Future Runner Maternity Shirt Los AngelesPre-conception counseling is care that is provided to a woman and/ or couple to discuss conception, pregnancy, current health issues and recommendations for the period before pregnancy.   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Prenatal medical care is the medical and nursing care recommended for women during pregnancy, time intervals and exact goals of each visit differ by country Women who are high risk have better outcomes if they are seen regularly and frequently by a medical professional than women who are low risk.[71] A woman can be labeled as high risk for different reasons including previous complications in pregnancy, complications in the current pregnancy, current medical diseases, or social issues.   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

The aim of good prenatal care is prevention, early identification, and treatment of any medical complications.  A basic prenatal visit consists of measurement of blood pressure, fundal height, weight and fetal heart rate, checking for symptoms of labor, and guidance for what to expect next.   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Nutrition   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

 

Nutrition during pregnancy is important to ensure healthy growth of the fetus.[  Nutrition during pregnancy is different from the non-pregnant state  There are increased energy requirements and specific micronutrient requirements. Women benefit from education to encourage a balanced energy and protein intake during pregnancy. Some women may need professional medical advice if their diet is affected by medical conditions, food allergies, or specific religious/ ethical beliefs. ]   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Adequate periconceptional (time before and right after conception) folic acid (also called folate or Vitamin B9) intake has been shown to decrease the risk of fetal neural tube defects, such as spina bifida.  The neural tube develops during the first 28 days of pregnancy, a urine pregnancy test is not usually positive until 14 days post-conception, explaining the necessity to guarantee adequate folate intake before conception  Folate is abundant in green leafy vegetables, legumes, and citrus  In the United States and Canada, most wheat products (flour, noodles) are fortified with folic acid.   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

DHA omega-3 is a major structural fatty acid in the brain and retina, and is naturally found in breast milk It is important for the woman to consume adequate amounts of DHA during pregnancy and while nursing to support her well-being and the health of her infant. Developing infants cannot produce DHA efficiently, and must receive this vital nutrient from the woman through the placenta during pregnancy and in breast milk after birth.   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Several micronutrients are important for the health of the developing fetus, especially in areas of the world where insufficient nutrition is common  Women living in low and middle-income countries are suggested to take multiple micronutrient supplements containing iron and folic acid  These supplements have been shown to improve birth outcomes in developing countries, but do not have an effect on perinatal mortality.  Adequate intake of folic acid, and iron is often recommended.  In developed areas, such as Western Europe and the United States, certain nutrients such as Vitamin D and calcium, required for bone development, may also require supplementation. Vitamin E supplementation has not been shown to improve birth outcomes. Zinc supplementation has been associated with a decrease in preterm birth, but it is unclear whether it is causative  Daily iron supplementation reduces the risk of maternal anemia. Studies of routine daily iron supplementation for pregnant women found improvement in blood iron levels, without a clear clinical benefit.  The nutritional needs of women carrying twins or triplets. are higher than those of women carrying one baby

Women are counseled to avoid certain foods, because of the possibility of Future Runner Maternity Shirt Los Angelescontamination with bacteria or parasites that can cause illness.  Careful washing of fruits and raw vegetables may remove these pathogens, as may thoroughly cooking leftovers, meat, or processed meat  Unpasteurized dairy and deli meats may contain Listeria, which can cause neonatal meningitis, stillbirth and miscarriage  Pregnant women are also more prone to Salmonella infections, can be in eggs and poultry, which should be thoroughly cooked.  Cat feces and undercooked meats may contain the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and can cause toxoplasmosis. Practicing good hygiene in the kitchen can reduce these risks.   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Women are also counseled to eat seafood in moderation and to eliminate seafood known to be high in mercury because of the risk of birth defects.  Pregnant women are counseled to consume caffeine in moderation, because large amounts of caffeine are associated with miscarriage.  However, the relationship between caffeine, birthweight, and preterm birth is unclear   Future runner maternity shirt Los Angeles

Weight gain

The amount of healthy weight gain during a pregnancy varies.  Weight gain is related to the weight of the baby, the placenta, extra circulatory fluid, larger tissues, and fat and protein stores  Most needed weight gain occurs later in pregnancy.

The Institute of Medicine recommends an overall pregnancy weight gain for those of normal weight (body mass index of 18.5–24.9), of 11.3–15.9 kg (25–35 pounds) having a singleton pregnancy  Women who are underweight (BMI of less than 18.5), should gain between 12.7–18 kg (28–40 lbs), while those who are overweight (BMI of 25–29.9) are advised to gain between 6.8–11.3 kg (15–25 lbs) and those who are obese (BMI>30) should gain between 5–9 kg (11–20 lbs).  These values reference the expectations for a term pregnancy. The Friedmann-Balayla Model provides a more accurate calculation of weight gain by gestational age.

During pregnancy, insufficient or excessive weight gain can compromise the health of the mother and fetus  The most effective intervention for weight gain in underweight women is not clear  Being or becoming overweight in pregnancy increases the risk of complications for mother and fetus, including cesarean section, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, macrosomia and shoulder dystocia.  Excessive weight gain can make losing weight after the pregnancy difficult.

Around 50% of women of childbearing age in developed countries like the United Kingdom are overweight or obese before pregnancy.  Diet modification is the most effective way to reduce weight gain and associated risks in pregnancy  A diet that has foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent the onset of gestational diabetes.

Medication

 

Future Runner Maternity Shirt Los AngelesDrugs used during pregnancy can have temporary or permanent effects on the fetus. Anything (including drugs) that can cause permanent deformities in the fetus are labeled as teratogens  In the U.S., drugs were classified into categories A, B, C, D and X based on the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rating system to provide therapeutic guidance based on potential benefits and fetal risks. Drugs, including some multivitamins, that have demonstrated no fetal risks after controlled studies in humans are classified as Category A  On the other hand, drugs like thalidomide with proven fetal risks that outweigh all benefits are classified as Category X

 

 

Recreational drugs

The use of recreational drugs in pregnancy can cause various pregnancy complications.

  • Ethanol during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal Future Runner Maternity Shirt Los Angelesalcohol spectrum disorder. Studies have shown that light to moderate drinking during pregnancy might not pose a risk to the fetus, although no amount of alcohol during pregnancy can be guaranteed to be absolutely safe
  • Tobacco smoking during pregnancy can cause a wide range of behavioral, neurological, and physical difficulties Smoking during pregnancy causes twice the risk of premature rupture of membranes, placental abruption and placenta previa. Smoking is associated with 30% higher odds of preterm birth
  • Prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with premature birth, birth defects and attention deficit disorder
  • Prenatal methamphetamine   exposure can            cause premature birth and congenital abnormalities. Short-term neonatal outcomes show small deficits in infant neurobehavioral function and growth restriction. ] Long-term effects in terms of impaired brain development may also be caused by methamphetamine use.
  • Cannabis in pregnancy has been shown to be teratogenic in large doses in animals, but has not shown any teratogenic effects in humans

 

 

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