Maternity cycling Jersey Fit Pregnancy was founded as a magazine in 1993 by Weider Publications as a spin-off of Shape Magazine. Weider Publications was acquired by American Media, Inc. in November 2002. In 2015, Fit Pregnancy was acquired by Meredith, who closed its print edition. Maternity Cycling Jersey Los Angeles
Peg Moline is the magazine’s Editor-in-Chief.
Fit Pregnancy offers advice and health information from OB/GYNs and Pediatricians, such as Dr. Jay Gordon, Dr. Michel Cohen, and Fit Pregnancy.com's Ask the Labor Nurse blogger Jeanne Faulkner Maternity cycling Jersey
Fit Pregnancies annual feature on The Best Cities to Have a Baby has been regularly featured on the NBC program Today. The magazine encourages breastfeeding, fitness, and regularly features a column on Environmentalism. Maternity cycling Jersey
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. A multiple pregnancies involves more than one offspring, such as with twins Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology. Childbirth typically occurs around 40 weeks from the last menstrual period (LMP). This is just over nine months, where each month averages 29½ days. When measured from conception it is about 38 weeks. An embryo is the developing offspring during the first eight weeks following conception, after which, the term fetus is used until birth. Symptoms of early pregnancy may include missed periods, tender breasts, nausea and vomiting, hunger, and frequent urination.Pregnancy may be confirmed by a pregnancy test Maternity cycling Jersey
Pregnancy is typically divided into three trimesters. The first trimester is from week one through 12 and includes conception Conception is when the sperm fertilizes the egg. The fertilized egg then travels down the fallopian tube and attaches to the inside of the uterus, where it begins to form the embryo and placenta The first trimester carries the highest risk of miscarriage (natural death of embryo or fetus). The second trimester is from week 13 through 28. Around the middle of the second trimester, movement of the fetus may be felt At 28 weeks, more than 90% of babies can survive outside of the uterus is provided with high-quality medical care. The third trimester is from 29 weeks through 40 weeks. Maternity cycling Jersey
Common symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy include:
In addition, pregnancy may result in pregnancy complication such as deep vein thrombosis or worsening of an intercurrent disease in pregnancy. Maternity cycling Jersey
Through an interplay of hormones that includes follicle stimulating hormone that stimulates folliculogenesis and oogenesis creates a mature egg cell, the female gamete. Fertilization is the event where the egg cell fuses with the male gamete, spermatozoon. After the point of fertilization, the fused product of the female and male gamete is referred to as a zygote or fertilized egg. The fusion of male and female gametes usually occurs following the act of sexual intercourse. Fertilization can also occur by assisted reproductive technology such as artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization. Maternity cycling Jersey
Fertilization (conception) is sometimes used as the initiation of pregnancy, with the derived age being termed fertilization age. Fertilization usually occurs about two weeks before the next expected menstrual period. Maternity cycling Jersey
The third point in time is also considered by some people to be the true beginning of a pregnancy: This is a time of implantation, when the future fetus attaches to the lining of the uterus. This is about a week to ten days after fertilization.[ In this model, during the time between conception and implantation, the future fetus exists, but the woman is not considered pregnant. Maternity cycling Jersey
The initial stages of human embryogenesis
The sperm and the egg cell, which has been released from one of the female's two ovaries, unite in one of the two fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg, known as a zygote, then moves toward the uterus, a journey that can take up to a week to complete. Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after the male and female cells unite. Cell division continues at a rapid rate and the cells then develop into what is known as a blastocyst. The blastocyst arrives at the uterus and attaches to the uterine wall, a process known as implantation. Maternity cycling Jersey
The development of the mass of cells that will become the infant is called embryogenesis during the first approximately ten weeks of gestation. During this time, cells begin to differentiate into the various body systems. The basic outlines of the organ, body, and nervous systems are established. By the end of the embryonic stage, the beginnings of features such as fingers, eyes, mouth, and ears become visible. Also during this time, there is the development of structures important to the support of the embryo, including the placenta and umbilical cord. The placenta connects the developing embryo to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply. The umbilical cord is the connecting cord from the embryo or fetus to the placenta.
During pregnancy, the woman undergoes many physiological changes, which are entirely normal, including cardiovascular, hematologic, metabolic, renal, and respiratory changes. Increases in blood sugar, breathing, and cardiac output is all required. Levels of progesterone and estrogens rise continuously throughout pregnancy, suppressing the hypothalamic axis and therefore also the menstrual cycle. Maternity cycling Jersey
The fetus is genetically different from the woman and can be viewed as an unusually successful allograft. The main reason for this success is increased immune tolerance during pregnancy. Immune tolerance is the concept that the body is able to not mount an immune system response against certain triggers. Maternity cycling Jersey
Pregnancy is typically broken into three periods, or trimesters, each of about three months. Each trimester is defined as 14 weeks, for a total duration of 42 weeks, although the average duration of pregnancy is 40 weeks While there are no hard and fast rules, these distinctions are useful in describing the changes that take place over time. Maternity cycling Jersey
Further information: Symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy Maternity cycling Jersey
Linea nigra in a woman at 22 weeks pregnant Maternity cycling Jersey
Flowchart showing the recommended weight limits for lifting at work during pregnancy as a function of lifting frequency, weeks of gestation, and the position of the lifted object relative to the lifter's body
Preconception counseling is care that is provided to a woman and/ or couple to discuss conception, pregnancy, current health issues and recommendations for the period before pregnancy. Maternity cycling Jersey
Prenatal medical care is the medical and nursing care recommended for women during pregnancy, time intervals and exact goals of each visit differ by country Women who are high risk have better outcomes if they are seen regularly and frequently by a medical professional than women who are low risk. A woman can be labeled as high risk for different reasons including previous complications in pregnancy, complications in the current pregnancy, current medical diseases, or social issues. Maternity cycling Jersey
The aim of good prenatal care is prevention, early identification, and treatment of any medical complications. A basic prenatal visit consists of measurement of blood pressure, fundal height, weight and fetal heart rate, checking for symptoms of labor, and guidance for what to expect next. Maternity cycling Jersey
Nutrition during pregnancy is important to ensure healthy growth of the fetus.[ Nutrition during pregnancy is different from the non-pregnant state There are increased energy requirements and specific micronutrient requirements. Women benefit from education to encourage a balanced energy and protein intake during pregnancy. Some women may need professional medical advice if their diet is affected by medical conditions, food allergies, or specific religious/ ethical beliefs. ] Maternity cycling Jersey
Adequate periconceptional (time before and right after conception) folic acid (also called folate or Vitamin B9) intake has been shown to decrease the risk of fetal neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. The neural tube develops during the first 28 days of pregnancy, a urine pregnancy test is not usually positive until 14 days post-conception, explaining the necessity to guarantee adequate folate intake before conception Folate is abundant in green leafy vegetables, legumes, and citrus In the United States and Canada, most wheat products (flour, noodles) are fortified with folic acid. Maternity cycling Jersey
DHA omega-3 is a major structural fatty acid in the brain and retina, and is naturally found in breast milk It is important for the woman to consume adequate amounts of DHA during pregnancy and while nursing to support her well-being and the health of her infant. Developing infants cannot produce DHA efficiently, and must receive this vital nutrient from the woman through the placenta during pregnancy and in breast milk after birth. Maternity cycling Jersey
Several micronutrients are important for the health of the developing fetus, especially in areas of the world where insufficient nutrition is common Women living in low and middle-income countries are suggested to take multiple micronutrient supplements containing iron and folic acid These supplements have been shown to improve birth outcomes in developing countries, but do not have an effect on perinatal mortality. Adequate intake of folic acid, and iron is often recommended. In developed areas, such as Western Europe and the United States, certain nutrients such as Vitamin D and calcium, required for bone development, may also require supplementation. Vitamin E supplementation has not been shown to improve birth outcomes. Zinc supplementation has been associated with a decrease in preterm birth, but it is unclear whether it is causative Daily iron supplementation reduces the risk of maternal anemia. Studies of routine daily iron supplementation for pregnant women found improvement in blood iron levels, without a clear clinical benefit. The nutritional needs of women carrying twins or triplets. are higher than those of women carrying one baby
Women are counseled to avoid certain foods, because of the possibility of contamination with bacteria or parasites that can cause illness. Careful washing of fruits and raw vegetables may remove these pathogens, as may thoroughly cooking leftovers, meat, or processed meat Unpasteurized dairy and deli meats may contain Listeria, which can cause neonatal meningitis, stillbirth and miscarriage Pregnant women are also more prone to Salmonella infections, can be in eggs and poultry, which should be thoroughly cooked. Cat feces and undercooked meats may contain the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and can cause toxoplasmosis. Practicing good hygiene in the kitchen can reduce these risks. Maternity cycling Jersey
Women are also counseled to eat seafood in moderation and to eliminate seafood known to be high in mercury because of the risk of birth defects. Pregnant women are counseled to consume caffeine in moderation, because large amounts of caffeine are associated with miscarriage. However, the relationship between caffeine, birthweight, and preterm birth is unclear Maternity cycling Jersey
The amount of healthy weight gain during a pregnancy varies. Weight gain is related to the weight of the baby, the placenta, extra circulatory fluid, larger tissues, and fat and protein stores Most needed weight gain occurs later in pregnancy.
The Institute of Medicine recommends an overall pregnancy weight gain for those of normal weight (body mass index of 18.5–24.9), of 11.3–15.9 kg (25–35 pounds) having a singleton pregnancy Women who are underweight (BMI of less than 18.5), should gain between 12.7–18 kg (28–40 lbs), while those who are overweight (BMI of 25–29.9) are advised to gain between 6.8–11.3 kg (15–25 lbs) and those who are obese (BMI>30) should gain between 5–9 kg (11–20 lbs). These values reference the expectations for a term pregnancy. The Friedmann-Balayla Model provides a more accurate calculation of weight gain by gestational age.
During pregnancy, insufficient or excessive weight gain can compromise the health of the mother and fetus The most effective intervention for weight gain in underweight women is not clear Being or becoming overweight in pregnancy increases the risk of complications for mother and fetus, including cesarean section, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, macrosomia and shoulder dystocia. Excessive weight gain can make losing weight after the pregnancy difficult.
Around 50% of women of childbearing age in developed countries like the United Kingdom are overweight or obese before pregnancy. Diet modification is the most effective way to reduce weight gain and associated risks in pregnancy A diet that has foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent the onset of gestational diabetes.
Drugs used during pregnancy can have temporary or permanent effects on the fetus. Anything (including drugs) that can cause permanent deformities in the fetus are labeled as teratogens In the U.S., drugs were classified into categories A, B, C, D and X based on the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rating system to provide therapeutic guidance based on potential benefits and fetal risks. Drugs, including some multivitamins, that have demonstrated no fetal risks after controlled studies in humans are classified as Category A On the other hand, drugs like thalidomide with proven fetal risks that outweigh all benefits are classified as Category X
The use of recreational drugs in pregnancy can cause various pregnancy complications.
Regular aerobic exercise during pregnancy appears to improve (or maintain) physical fitness. Physical exercise during pregnancy does appear to decrease the risk of C-section. Bed rest, outside of research studies, is not recommended as there is no evidence of benefit and potential harm.
The Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee of Canada recommends that "All women without contraindications should be encouraged to participate in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises as part of a healthy lifestyle during their pregnancy". Although an upper level of safe exercise intensity has not been established, women who were regular exercisers before pregnancy and who have uncomplicated pregnancies should be able to engage in high-intensity exercise programs. In general, participation in a wide range of recreational activities appears to be safe, with the avoidance of those with a high risk of falling such as horseback riding or skiing or those that carry a risk of abdominal trauma, such as soccer or hockey. Maternity cycling Jersey
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists reports that in the past, the main concerns of exercise in pregnancy were focused on the fetus and any potential maternal benefit was thought to be offset by potential risks to the fetus. However, they write that more recent information suggests that in the uncomplicated pregnancy, fatal injuries are highly unlikely. They do, however, list several circumstances when a woman should contact her health care provider before continuing with an exercise program: vaginal bleeding, dyspnea before exertion, dizziness, headache, chest pain, muscle weakness, preterm labor, decreased fetal movement, amniotic fluid leakage, and calf pain or swelling (to rule out thrombophlebitis) Maternity cycling Jersey
It has been suggested that shift work and exposure to bright light at night should be avoided at least during the last trimester of pregnancy to decrease the risk of psychological and behavioral problems in the newborn Maternity cycling Jersey.