Nutrition during pregnancy is important to ensure healthy growth of the fetus.[ Nutrition during pregnancy is different from the non-pregnant state There are increased energy requirements and specific micronutrient requirements. Women benefit from education to encourage a balanced energy and protein intake during pregnancy. Some women may need professional medical advice if their diet is affected by medical conditions, food allergies, or specific religious/ ethical beliefs. ] Maternity sports apparel los Angeles
Adequate periconceptional (time before and right after conception) folic acid (also called folate or Vitamin B9) intake has been shown to decrease the risk of fetal neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. The neural tube develops during the first 28 days of pregnancy, a urine pregnancy test is not usually positive until 14 days post-conception, explaining the necessity to guarantee adequate folate intake before conception Folate is abundant in green leafy vegetables, legumes, and citrus In the United States and Canada, most wheat products (flour, noodles) are fortified with folic acid. Maternity sports apparel los Angeles
DHA omega-3 is a major structural fatty acid in the brain and retina, and is naturally found in breast milk It is important for the woman to consume adequate amounts of DHA during pregnancy and while nursing to support her well-being and the health of her infant. Developing infants cannot produce DHA efficiently, and must receive this vital nutrient from the woman through the placenta during pregnancy and in breast milk after birth. Fashionable maternity clothes los Angeles
Several micronutrients are important for the health of the developing fetus, especially in areas of the world where insufficient nutrition is common Women living in low and middle income countries are suggested to take multiple micronutrient supplements containing iron and folic acid These supplements have been shown to improve birth outcomes in developing countries, but do not have an effect on perinatal mortality. Adequate intake of folic acid, and iron is often recommended. In developed areas, such as Western Europe and the United States, certain nutrients such as Vitamin Dand calcium, required for bone development, may also require supplementation. Vitamin E supplementation has not been shown to improve birth outcomes. Zinc supplementation has been associated with a decrease in preterm birth, but it is unclear whether it is causative Daily iron supplementation reduces the risk of maternal anemia. Studies of routine daily iron supplementation for pregnant women found improvement in blood iron levels, without a clear clinical benefit. The nutritional needs for women carrying twins or triplets. are higher than those of women carrying one baby
Women are counseled to avoid certain foods, because of the possibility of contamination with bacteria or parasites that can cause illness. Careful washing of fruits and raw vegetables may remove these pathogens, as may thoroughly cooking leftovers, meat, or processed meat Unpasteurized dairy and deli meats may contain Listeria, which can cause neonatal meningitis, stillbirth and miscarriage Pregnant women are also more prone to Salmonella infections, can be in eggs and poultry, which should be thoroughly cooked. Cat feces and undercooked meats may contain the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and can cause toxoplasmosis. Practicing good hygiene in the kitchen can reduce these risks. Maternity sports apparel los Angeles
Women are also counseled to eat seafood in moderation and to eliminate seafood known to be high in mercury because of the risk of birth defects. Pregnant women are counseled to consume caffeine in moderation, because large amounts of caffeine are associated with miscarriage. However, the relationship between caffeine, birthweight, and preterm birth is unclea Maternity sports apparel los Angeles
Weight gain Maternity sports apparel los Angeles
The amount of healthy weight gain during a pregnancy varies. Weight gain is related to the weight of the baby, the placenta, extra circulatory fluid, larger tissues, and fat and protein stores Most needed weight gain occurs later in pregnancy. Maternity sports apparel los Angeles
The Institute of Medicine recommends an overall pregnancy weight gain for those of normal weight (body mass index of 18.5–24.9), of 11.3–15.9 kg (25–35 pounds) having a singleton pregnancy Women who are underweight (BMI of less than 18.5), should gain between 12.7–18 kg (28–40 lbs), while those who are overweight (BMI of 25–29.9) are advised to gain between 6.8–11.3 kg (15–25 lbs) and those who are obese (BMI>30) should gain between 5–9 kg (11–20 lbs). These values reference the expectations for a term pregnancy. The Friedmann-Balayla Model provides a more accurate calculation of weight gain by gestational age. Maternity sports apparel los Angeles
During pregnancy, insufficient or excessive weight gain can compromise the health of the mother and fetus The most effective intervention for weight gain in underweight women is not clear Being or becoming overweight in pregnancy increases the risk of complications for mother and fetus, including cesarean section, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, macrosomia and shoulder dystocia. Excessive weight gain can make losing weight after the pregnancy difficult. Maternity sports apparel los Angeles
Around 50% of women of childbearing age in developed countries like the United Kingdom are overweight or obese before pregnancy. Diet modification is the most effective way to reduce weight gain and associated risks in pregnancy A diet that has foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent the onset of gestational diabetes. Maternity sports apparel los Angeles
Here are some facts about exercising during pregnancy. More detail is in the main article.
Benefits of exercise during pregnancy Maternity sports apparel los Angeles
Exercise during pregnancy can provide great benefit for a mother and child.
During pregnancy, exercise should aim to:
Exercise during pregnancy can help:
It may also give an infant a healthier start.
Research shows that when pregnant women exercise, fetal heart rate is lower. Newborns may also have a healthier birth weight, a lower fat mass, improved stress tolerance, and advanced neurobehavioral maturation.
Tips and cautions Maternity sports apparel los Angeles
Women who were exercising regularly before pregnancy, and who are healthy during pregnancy, should be able to continue exercising as before, with slight changes depending on the trimester.
Women who have not been exercising before pregnancy will benefit from taking up a low-intensity program and gradually move to a higher activity level.
Exercise is recommended for 20 to 30 minutes each day, on most days. Most exercises are safe to perform during pregnancy if done with caution.
Tips for healthy exercise during pregnancy Maternity sports apparel los Angeles
Physical changes during pregnancy create extra demands on the body, so it is important to exercise with care. Maternity sports apparel los Angeles